Prostate Cancer


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Prostate cancer is the most common cancer among men.

The prostate is below the bladder (the hollow organ where urine is stored) and in front of the rectum (the last part of the intestines). Just behind the prostate are glands called seminal vesicles that make most of the fluid for semen. The urethra, which is the tube that carries urine and semen out of the body through the penis, goes through the center of the prostate.


Almost all prostate cancers are adenocarcinomas. These cancers develop from the gland cells (the cells that make the prostate fluid that is added to the semen).

Other types of cancer that can start in the prostate include:

  • Small cell carcinomas
  • Neuroendocrine tumors (other than small cell carcinomas)
  • Transitional cell carcinomas
  • Sarcomas


1. Local treatments

  • Observation or Active Surveillance for Prostate Cancer
  • Surgery for Prostate Cancer

2. Systemic treatments

  • Testosterone suppression therapy and androgen axis inhibitors
  • Targeted therapy
  • Chemotherapy
  • Immunotherapy
  • Radiopharmaceuticals
  • Bone-modifying drugs